Understanding the Problem: Concrete Steps Pulling Away from Porch
Concrete steps pulling away from a porch is a common issue that many homeowners encounter. This problem not only compromises the stability of the steps but also poses a safety risk for residents and guests. It is crucial to address this issue promptly to ensure the stability and safety of your porch area.
There are several factors that can cause concrete steps to pull away from the porch. These include inadequate foundation support, soil settlement, structural movement, or poor construction techniques. Understanding the underlying cause is essential in determining the appropriate repair method.
Addressing the problem is important for several reasons. Firstly, it ensures the stability of the steps, preventing further movement and potential collapse. Secondly, it enhances the safety of individuals using the steps, reducing the risk of accidents and injuries. Lastly, addressing this issue early can save you from more extensive and costly repairs in the future.
Before proceeding with repairs, it is crucial to assess the severity of the problem. Look for signs such as visible gaps between the steps and the porch, horizontal or vertical cracks, or noticeable tilting or sinking of the steps. Determining the level of instability is essential to determine the most effective repair approach.
By understanding the problem, assessing its severity, and acknowledging the importance of addressing the issue, you can proceed confidently with the repair process. Remember to prioritize safety and follow the necessary steps to ensure a stable and secure solution for your concrete steps pulling away from the porch.
Understanding the Problem: Concrete steps can pull away from the porch due to various reasons, and it is crucial to identify and address this issue promptly to ensure stability and safety.
Assessing the Severity: Recognizing signs of concrete steps pulling away and determining the level of instability is vital to determine the appropriate repair methods.
Repair and Maintenance: Different methods such as epoxy injection, installing metal brackets or anchors, and rebuilding the steps can be used to repair concrete steps. Reinforcing the repaired steps with protective coatings and non-slip surfaces contributes to long-term stability.
Understanding the Problem: Concrete Steps Pulling Away from Porch
Inspect the area: Start by carefully examining the steps and the porch to evaluate the severity of the problem. Look for visible cracks, gaps, or signs of movement.
Determine the cause: Concrete steps pulling away from a porch can be attributed to various factors, such as soil erosion, inadequate foundation, or settlement. Identify the underlying cause to develop an appropriate solution.
Consult a professional: It is crucial to seek guidance from a structural engineer or a qualified contractor specializing in concrete repair. They will provide expert advice and recommend the most suitable course of action.
Stabilize the steps: Depending on the extent of the problem, stabilizing the steps may involve injecting epoxy into cracks, reinforcing the foundations, or using support brackets. The chosen method will depend on the severity of the issue and the engineer’s recommendations.
Repair the concrete: Once the steps are stable, repair any damaged concrete. This may include filling cracks, resurfacing the steps, or replacing sections of concrete if necessary.
Pro-tip: Regular maintenance and inspections can help prevent concrete steps from pulling away from a porch. Be vigilant for signs of damage, such as cracks, and address them promptly to ensure the long-term stability and safety of your steps.
What Causes Concrete Steps to Pull Away from the Porch?
Concrete steps can pull away from the porch due to several factors. These include:
Insufficient foundation: If the steps were not properly built on a solid and stable foundation, they can shift and move away from the porch over time.
Soil movement: Changes in the soil beneath the steps can cause them to shift and pull away. This can occur due to factors like soil erosion, expansion and contraction of the soil, or the presence of tree roots.
Poor construction techniques: If the steps were not built with proper reinforcement or were not adequately attached to the porch, they can easily pull away.
Age and wear: Over time, the concrete steps may deteriorate and weaken, leading to movement and separation from the porch.
Water damage: Excessive moisture or water accumulation can weaken the concrete and cause it to pull away from the porch.
To address this issue, it is important to identify the underlying cause and take appropriate measures to repair and reinforce the steps. Methods such as using epoxy injection, installing metal brackets or anchors, or even rebuilding the steps may be employed depending on the severity of the damage.
Regular inspections and maintenance of the steps are essential to ensure their long-term stability. Applying a protective coating and adding a non-slip surface can help prevent future issues and ensure the safety of those using the steps.
By addressing the causes of concrete steps pulling away from the porch, stability and safety can be maintained, ultimately extending the lifespan of the steps and preventing further damage.
Why Is It Important to Address this Issue?
Addressing the issue of concrete steps pulling away from the porch is a crucial task that should not be ignored. The instability of these steps poses a significant risk to the safety of individuals using them.
It is vital to address this issue to prevent accidents and injuries. Concrete steps that are pulling away from the porch may become more unstable over time, leading to further damage and potential collapse. This can result in severe injuries to anyone using the stairs, including residents and visitors.
Leaving the problem unaddressed can lead to increased repair costs in the long run. Fixing the issue early on can help prevent further damage and the need for more extensive repairs or even complete replacement of the steps. By addressing the problem promptly, you can save yourself time, money, and the hassle of dealing with a more extensive repair project.
In addition, addressing the issue demonstrates a commitment to maintaining the safety and stability of your property. It is essential to prioritize the well-being of all individuals who use the steps and ensure that they can do so safely. Taking action and repairing the steps promptly will enhance the overall safety and aesthetics of your porch area.
To summarise, it is important to address the issue of concrete steps pulling away from the porch because it prevents accidents, reduces repair costs, and demonstrates a commitment to safety and property maintenance. Ignoring the problem can lead to further damage, potential collapse, and increased risks to the well-being of those using the steps.
Assessing the Severity of the Problem
Assessing the severity of concrete steps pulling away from the porch. Let’s gauge the signs and determine the level of instability lurking within. By examining the warning signs and assessing the extent of the problem, we’ll uncover the key factors that will help us ensure the safety and stability of your concrete steps. Let’s get to the heart of the matter, ensuring your peace of mind and the longevity of your porch!
Signs of Concrete Steps Pulling Away
Signs of concrete steps pulling away from the porch can be easily identified by inspecting the structure. Here are some common signs to look for:
Visible gaps between the steps and the porch: If you notice gaps or spaces between the steps and the porch, it indicates that the steps have shifted or pulled away from the porch. These gaps can vary in size and should not be ignored.
Uneven or sloping steps: If the steps are no longer level or if they appear to be leaning or sloping to one side, it is a clear sign that they are pulling away from the porch. This can pose a safety risk and should be addressed promptly.
Cracks or crumbling concrete: Cracks or crumbling areas in the steps or the porch can also indicate that the steps are pulling away. As the steps shift, the concrete can crack or deteriorate, leading to structural issues.
Movement or wobbling of the steps: If you notice that the steps move or wobble when you walk on them, it is a strong indication that they have become unstable and are pulling away from the porch.
Noises or vibrations: If you hear any unusual noises or feel vibrations when using the steps, it could be a sign that they are pulling away from the porch. Pay attention to any creaking, cracking, or shifting sensations.
In a similar situation, my friend noticed significant gaps between their concrete steps and the porch. Concerned about the safety of their family, they immediately contacted a professional contractor who inspected the problem. The contractor confirmed that the steps were indeed pulling away and recommended using metal brackets to secure them back in place. The brackets were installed, reinforcing the connection between the steps and the porch. Regular inspections and maintenance are now performed to ensure the long-term stability of the steps and prevent any future issues. Thanks to their quick action and professional assistance, my friend’s family can now safely use their concrete steps without worrying about them pulling away from the porch.
Determining the Level of Instability
When determining the level of instability in concrete steps that are pulling away from the porch, there are several factors to consider:
Visible gaps: Examine the area where the steps meet the porch and look for any visible gaps between the concrete and the porch. These gaps can indicate the extent of the pulling away and the level of instability.
Level of movement: Observe the movement of the steps when weight is applied. If the steps noticeably shift or move away from the porch, it indicates a higher level of instability.
Noise: Listen for any sounds such as creaking or cracking when walking on the steps. Unusual noises can be a sign of instability and a potential danger.
Porch condition: Assess the condition of the porch itself. If there are cracks, unevenness, or other signs of damage, it can contribute to the instability of the steps.
Hazard assessment: Consider the safety risk posed by the instability of the steps. If the steps are pulling away significantly and pose a high risk of collapse or injury, immediate action should be taken to address the issue.
Determining the level of instability is crucial in order to choose the appropriate repair method and ensure the stability and safety of the concrete steps.>
Preparing for Repair
Proper preparation is essential for ensuring stability and safety when repairing concrete steps pulling away from your porch. This section explores the important steps you need to take before starting the repair process. It covers gathering the necessary tools and materials, ensuring safety measures are in place, and obtaining proper permits if required. Let’s get started and say goodbye to wobbly steps!
Gathering the Necessary Tools and Materials
Gathering the necessary tools and materials for repairing concrete steps pulling away from the porch requires careful preparation. Here is a list of essential items:
Safety goggles and gloves: These will protect your eyes and hands during the repair process.
Hammer and chisel: These tools are necessary for removing any loose or damaged concrete.
Concrete adhesive: This will be used to bond the old and new concrete together.
Epoxy resin: If you choose to use the epoxy injection method, you will need epoxy resin to fill any cracks or gaps in the concrete.
Drill and masonry drill bit: This will be used to create holes for installing metal brackets or anchors.
Metal brackets or anchors: These are necessary for reinforcing the concrete steps and preventing further pulling away.
Concrete mix: If you need to rebuild the steps, you will need concrete mix to create new steps.
Trowel: This tool is essential for applying and shaping the concrete mix.
Level: A level will ensure that the repaired steps are even and properly aligned.
Protective coating: Applying a protective coating will help prolong the lifespan of the repaired steps.
Non-slip surface: Adding a non-slip surface will enhance safety by providing better traction.
By gathering these necessary tools and materials, you will be well-prepared to successfully repair the concrete steps that are pulling away from the porch.
Ensuring Safety Measures
When repairing concrete steps that are pulling away from a porch, it is crucial to ensure safety measures. Here are some important safety measures to consider:
Wear protective gear, such as safety goggles, gloves, and a dust mask, to protect yourself from flying debris and harmful chemicals.
Secure the work site by cordoning off the area with caution tape or barriers to prevent anyone from accidentally stepping on the damaged steps.
Prior to starting any repairs, check the stability of the surrounding area to ensure there are no additional hazards or instabilities that could put you at risk.
Use proper lifting techniques and equipment when moving heavy materials to avoid strain or back injuries.
If working with power tools, always follow the manufacturer’s instructions, use appropriate extension cords, and keep cords out of the way to prevent tripping hazards.
Work during daylight hours or ensure proper lighting to ensure good visibility while carrying out the repairs.
If the repair involves using chemicals or solvents, ensure proper ventilation to avoid inhaling harmful fumes.
Remember, safety should always be the top priority when working on any construction or repair project. Taking the necessary precautions will help prevent accidents and injuries, ensuring a safer working environment for yourself and others.
Pro-tip: Consider having a buddy or someone nearby when working on the repairs. They can assist you if needed and provide an extra set of eyes for safety.
Obtaining Proper Permits if Required
Obtaining the necessary permits, if required, is an important step when addressing the issue of concrete steps pulling away from the porch. This ensures that you are complying with local regulations and obtaining the necessary permissions before proceeding with the repair work.
Research local regulations: Begin by researching the specific requirements in your area regarding permits for concrete repairs. Contact the local building department or authorities to gather information on the permits needed for this type of repair.
Determine if a permit is required: Based on the regulations and the extent of the repair work, determine if obtaining a permit is necessary. In some cases, minor repairs may not require a permit, while major repairs or structural changes may need one.
Contact the building department: If a permit is required, contact the local building department to understand the application process. They will provide you with the necessary forms and guide you through the requirements.
Submit the permit application: Fill out the permit application accurately and provide any additional documentation or drawings if requested. Submit the completed application along with any required fees.
Wait for approval: Once the permit application is submitted, it will be reviewed by the building department. The approval process may take some time, so be patient and follow up if needed.
Begin repair work: After obtaining the permit approval, you can proceed with the repair work knowing that you are complying with the necessary regulations.
Obtaining the necessary permits, if required, ensures that your concrete step repair is done in accordance with local regulations, ensuring safety and compliance.
Repair Methods for Concrete Steps Pulling Away from Porch
When your concrete steps start pulling away from your porch, it is important to take immediate action to ensure stability and safety. This section explores different repair methods that can effectively address this issue. These methods include epoxy injection, the installation of metal brackets or anchors, and even rebuilding the steps. By using these practical solutions, you can restore the integrity of your concrete steps and prevent any further damage. Prepare yourself to confront the problem directly and create a strong and secure pathway to your porch.
Method 1: Using Epoxy Injection
One effective method for repairing concrete steps that are pulling away from a porch is to use epoxy injection. Here are the steps to follow:
Inspect the damaged area to assess the extent of the problem and determine if epoxy injection is the appropriate solution.
Clean the surface of the concrete steps and porch to remove any debris or loose material that may affect the bonding of the epoxy.
Prepare the injection ports by drilling holes at regular intervals along the crack or gap where the steps are pulling away.
Insert the injection ports into the drilled holes, ensuring they are securely seated.
Mix the epoxy according to the manufacturer’s instructions, ensuring a thorough and consistent blend.
Using a caulking gun or pump, inject the epoxy into the prepared injection ports. Start from the lowest port, working your way up to ensure complete coverage.
Monitor the injection process to ensure the epoxy fills the crack or gap and displaces any air bubbles.
After injection, allow the epoxy to cure based on the manufacturer’s recommended curing time.
Remove the injection ports once the epoxy has fully cured and fill the holes with a suitable patching material.
Inspect the repaired area to ensure it is stable and properly aligned with the porch.
By following these steps and using epoxy injection, you can effectively repair concrete steps that are pulling away from a porch, restoring stability and safety to the structure.
Method 2: Installing Metal Brackets or Anchors
One effective method for repairing concrete steps pulling away from the porch is to install metal brackets or anchors. Here are the steps to follow:
Inspect the steps: Before starting the repair, assess the severity of the problem and determine if installing metal brackets or anchors is the right solution.
Gather the necessary tools and materials: You will need metal brackets or anchors, a drill, screws, a level, and a masonry bit.
Prepare the steps: Clean the area around the steps and remove any loose concrete or debris. This will ensure proper adhesion of the metal brackets or anchors.
Measure and mark the placement: Use a level to ensure that the metal brackets or anchors will be installed correctly and provide the necessary support.
Drill pilot holes: Use a masonry bit to drill pilot holes into the steps for the screws that will secure the brackets or anchors.
Install the brackets or anchors: Attach the metal brackets or anchors to the steps using screws. Make sure they are aligned properly and tightly secured.
Reinforce the repaired steps: Apply a protective coating to the repaired area to enhance durability and prevent future damage.
Ensure safety: Once the repair is complete, perform a thorough inspection to make sure the steps are stable and safe to use.
By following these steps, you can effectively repair concrete steps pulling away from the porch using the method of installing metal brackets or anchors. Remember to prioritize safety and consider seeking professional assistance if needed.
For optimal results and long-term stability, regularly inspect and maintain the repaired steps. This will help prevent future issues and ensure the safety of anyone using the stairs. Consider implementing measures to prevent water damage, such as adding a non-slip surface or improving drainage around the porch area.
Method 3: Rebuilding the Steps
The process of rebuilding the steps is an effective method for repairing concrete steps that are pulling away from the porch. Here are the steps to follow in order to successfully rebuild the steps:
Assess the damage: Carefully examine the extent of the damage to determine the scope of the rebuilding process.
Remove the damaged steps: Using a hammer and chisel, carefully break apart the damaged steps and remove them from the porch area.
Prepare the foundation: Ensure that the area where the steps will be rebuilt is clean and free from debris. Make sure the ground is level and compacted.
Build the formwork: Construct a sturdy formwork using wooden boards to create the shape and structure of the new steps.
Mix the concrete: Follow the instructions on the concrete mix packaging to prepare the appropriate amount of concrete for the steps.
Pour the concrete: Carefully pour the mixed concrete into the formwork, ensuring that it fills the entire space evenly.
Screed and level: Using a straight board or screed, smooth the surface of the concrete and level it to ensure a flat and even finish.
Add finishing touches: Use a trowel to add texture or decorative patterns to the surface of the steps while the concrete is still wet, if desired.
Cure the concrete: Cover the newly poured steps with plastic or a curing compound to protect them from drying out too quickly and to promote proper curing.
Remove formwork and finish: After the concrete has fully cured, remove the formwork and clean up any excess debris or materials.
Apply a protective coating: To enhance the longevity of the rebuilt steps, consider applying a protective coating or sealant to protect against weathering and damage.
By following these steps, you can successfully rebuild the steps and ensure stability and safety for your porch. It is important to take the necessary precautions and follow proper construction techniques to achieve the best results. Rebuilding the steps can help restore and improve the functionality and aesthetics of your porch area.
Remember to consult professional guidance or seek assistance if needed, especially if you are unfamiliar with construction or repair work.>
Reinforcing the Repaired Steps
To reinforce the steps that have been repaired, it is important to keep in mind a couple of key techniques. Firstly, the application of a protective coating should be considered to ensure long-lasting durability. Additionally, the addition of a non-slip surface can greatly enhance safety. Let’s now delve into these steps and ensure that the repaired steps not only look good but also perform optimally.
Applying Protective Coating
Applying a protective coating is an essential step when repairing concrete steps that are pulling away from the porch. This step is crucial as it enhances the durability and longevity of the repaired steps. Here is a step-by-step guide on how to apply a protective coating:
Thoroughly clean the repaired steps using a brush and water to remove any dust, dirt, or debris.
Allow the steps to completely dry before applying the protective coating.
Select a suitable protective coating based on the material of the steps and specific requirements. This can be a concrete sealer, epoxy resin, or a waterproofing membrane. If unsure, consult with a professional.
Evenly apply the protective coating using a brush or roller, ensuring all surfaces of the steps, including the sides and edges, are covered.
Follow the manufacturer’s instructions for drying time. This may vary depending on the type of coating used and could take several hours or even days.
Inspect the coating for any missed spots or unevenness. If necessary, apply a second coat to ensure complete coverage and protection.
Once the protective coating is dry and cured, the steps are ready for use. They will be more resistant to moisture, weathering, and other external factors that can cause damage.
When working with protective coatings, it is important to follow safety instructions, such as wearing protective gloves and ensuring proper ventilation in the area. Regular inspection and maintenance will help extend the lifespan of the protective coating and ensure the long-term stability of the repaired steps.
Adding Non-Slip Surface
When repairing concrete steps that are pulling away from a porch, it is important to add a non-slip surface to ensure safety and stability. Follow these steps:
Thoroughly clean the concrete steps to remove any dirt, debris, or loose material.
Apply a concrete bonding agent to the surface of the steps. This will help the non-slip surface adhere properly.
Mix a non-slip additive, such as silica sand or grit, with a concrete resurfacer according to the manufacturer’s instructions.
Using a trowel, evenly apply the resurfacer mixture onto the steps, ensuring complete coverage.
Immediately after applying the resurfacer, sprinkle additional non-slip additive onto the wet surface for added traction.
Allow the resurfacer to fully dry according to the manufacturer’s instructions.
Once dry, sweep off any excess non-slip additive that did not adhere to the surface.
If desired, apply a clear concrete sealer over the non-slip surface to protect it from wear and tear.
By adding a non-slip surface to the repaired concrete steps, you can ensure that they are safe to walk on, even in wet or slippery conditions.
Maintaining and Ensuring Long-Term Stability
To maintain and ensure long-term stability of your concrete steps, there are some key steps you can take. This section will discuss the importance of regular inspection and maintenance, as well as effective techniques for preventing future issues. Let’s explore how these strategies can help you maintain the durability and safety of your concrete steps, providing you with peace of mind for years to come.
Regular Inspection and Maintenance
Regular inspection and maintenance are crucial for ensuring the stability and safety of your concrete steps. By regularly checking and taking proactive measures, you can prevent any potential issues from escalating and maintain the longevity of your steps. Here are some steps to follow:
Inspect the steps for any cracks, chips, or signs of movement. Regularly examining the condition of your concrete steps allows you to identify any issues early on and take appropriate action.
Pay attention to the surrounding area of the steps. Look for any signs of soil erosion, water accumulation, or vegetation growth. These can indicate underlying issues that may affect the stability of the steps.
Ensure proper drainage around the steps. Clear any debris or blockages in the drainage system to prevent water buildup, which can weaken the foundation of the steps.
Maintain the surface of the steps. Regularly sweep off dirt and debris, and use a gentle detergent or cleaning solution to remove stains. Avoid using harsh chemicals or abrasive cleaning methods that can damage the concrete.
Check the handrails and supports. Ensure that they are securely attached and in good condition. Repair or replace any loose or damaged components to enhance the safety of the steps.
Consider applying a protective sealant or coating to the steps. This can help protect against moisture infiltration and minimize the risk of cracks and deterioration.
By following these steps and conducting regular inspections and maintenance, you can ensure that your concrete steps remain stable, safe, and in good condition for years to come.
Preventing Future Issues
To prevent future issues with concrete steps pulling away from the porch, there are several steps you can take:
Regular Inspection and Maintenance: Conduct regular inspections of the steps and porch to identify any signs of damage or movement. Look for cracks, gaps, or loose materials. Addressing any issues promptly can prevent them from becoming bigger problems in the future.
Proper Drainage: Ensure that the area around the steps and porch has proper drainage to prevent the accumulation of water. Standing water can weaken the foundation and lead to instability.
Keep the Area Clear: Keep the area around the steps clear of debris, leaves, and other materials that can trap moisture and cause damage. Regularly sweep the area to prevent moisture buildup and potential deterioration.
Use Non-Slip Surface: Apply a non-slip surface to the steps to enhance safety and prevent accidents. This can be achieved by using non-slip paints or adding adhesive strips to the step surfaces.
Monitor Weight and Load: Be mindful of the weight and load placed on the steps. Avoid exceeding the weight capacity recommended by the manufacturer. Overloading the steps can lead to stress and potential damage.
Be Mindful of Climate Conditions: Be aware of the impact of weather conditions on the steps. Extreme temperature changes, freezing and thawing cycles, and exposure to harsh weather elements can cause concrete to deteriorate faster. Taking protective measures during severe weather conditions can help prevent future issues.
Some Facts About How to Repair Concrete Steps Pulling Away from Porch:
✅ Concrete step repairs can be done easily and quickly without spending a lot of time or money.(Source: This Old House)
✅ The approach to repairing chipped concrete steps depends on the size and severity of the damage.(Source: This Old House)
✅ Small chips in concrete steps can be fixed with a wire or stiff-bristle brush to clean the area, followed by applying quick-setting cement.(Source: This Old House)
✅ For chipped corners, an L-shaped mold or form can be created using two short pieces of 1×6 wood, and a concrete bonding adhesive should be applied to the surface before applying cement.(Source: This Old House)
✅ Repairing concrete steps pulling away from a porch can be completed in less than a day as a simple DIY project, and the necessary tools and materials include a wire or stiff-bristle brush, water or shop vacuum, bonding adhesive, quick-setting cement, margin trowel, damp sponge, L-shaped form or mold, cooking oil, pointed trowel, steel trowel, and a wet sponge.(Source: This Old House)
Frequently Asked Questions
How do I repair concrete steps that are pulling away from my porch?
To repair concrete steps that are pulling away from your porch, follow these steps:
1. Prepare the area by cleaning it with a wire brush to remove any loose bits or debris.
2. Use a stiff-bristle brush or a wire brush to scrub the damaged surface thoroughly.
3. Use a margin trowel to apply a bonding adhesive to the damaged area.
4. Mix quick-setting cement in a plastic bucket according to the instructions on the packaging.
5. Apply the quick-setting cement to the damaged area, making sure to blend the edges with a damp sponge.
6. Smooth out the surface using a margin trowel and texture it with a wet sponge.
7. Allow the repair job to dry and cure properly as per the instructions on the quick-setting cement packaging.
8. Periodically wet the repaired area for 24 to 48 hours, especially in high-temperature regions, to ensure proper curing.
Why is it important to repair concrete steps that are pulling away from a porch?
Repairing concrete steps that are pulling away from a porch is important for stability and safety reasons. Leaving them in an unsafe condition could increase the risk of a trip and fall accident.
Can I terminate YouTube contracts if needed?
What is the purpose of using a damp sponge and margin trowel in concrete step repair?
A damp sponge is used to blend the edges of the repaired area and create a seamless and visually appealing finish. A margin trowel is used to apply and remove excess cement during the repair process.
Is it necessary to use quick-setting cement for repairing chipped corners?
Yes, using quick-setting cement is recommended for repairing chipped corners as it provides a fast and efficient solution. It allows for a quicker completion of the repair job.
How do I ensure stability and safety while repairing concrete steps?
To ensure stability and safety while repairing concrete steps, make sure to clean the damaged area thoroughly, properly apply bonding adhesive, use an appropriate form or mold for support, and follow the instructions on the cement packaging for curing and drying.
What tools and materials do I need for repairing concrete steps?
You will need a wire brush or stiff-bristle brush, water or shop vacuum, bonding adhesive, quick-setting cement, margin trowel, damp sponge, an L-shaped form or mold, cooking oil, pointed trowel, steel trowel, and a wet sponge for repairing concrete steps.